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SUGESTIONS - Types of Animals in the Game

Continuing the discussion from Types of Animals in the Game:

Continuing the discussion from Agriculture and Land:

Reference: image

Evolution domestic Animals


Reference: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/A-graphic-reconstruction-of-Neolithic-cattle-and-pig-in-relation-to-their-wild_fig2_228756160

Arouch >> catle


Reference: https://afm-oerlinghausen.de/en/afm-rundgang-en/steinzeit-en/jungsteinzeit-en/haustiere-en

Sheep


Reference: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/A-graphic-reconstruction-of-Neolithic-cattle-and-pig-in-relation-to-their-wild_fig2_228756160

image
Reference: https://www.museumoflondonprints.com/image/422248/derek-lucas-a-reconstruction-drawing-of-a-neolithic-sheep
Reference: http://www.wildfibres.co.uk/html/sheep_history.html

Pig:


Reference: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/A-graphic-reconstruction-of-Neolithic-cattle-and-pig-in-relation-to-their-wild_fig2_228756160
Reference: https://www.thoughtco.com/the-domestication-of-pigs-170665

Cientific study - Arouch


Reference;
http://www.self-willed-land.org.uk/rep_res/geog3180_8_2.pdf

Arouch


Reference; https://www.hunebednieuwscafe.nl/2018/09/aurochs-to-cow/


Reference: http://www.talmudology.com/jeremybrownmdgmailcom/2018/7/31/zevachim-113b-on-the-identity-of-the-reem


Reference: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/350/6265/1144

image
Reference: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/evan.20267

BISON



Reference:https://forum.zoologist.ru/viewtopic.php?pid=504168


Refrence https://allaboutbison.com/ancient-bison/

1 Like

Horses
Information on horses in the Nelitic and Ice Age is scarce. But basically the older races like those of the mongolia steers, seem to be the most plausible animals to domestication. And we must admit this item deserves better investigation. In particular ration extinguished from that period.


Reference; http://prehistoricflorida.org/product/fossil-product-test/


Reference; https://www.deviantart.com/eurwentala/art/Wild-Horses-3-771025306

Dog


Reference:
https://hyperallergic.com/412866/rock-engravings-of-dogs-on-leashes-show-pre-neolithic-good-boys/

Primitive dogs are advised to be studied for play.
Basically dogs are animals that have been evolved and tamed for certain functions;
Grazing: Cattle and sheep.
Guard.
Fishing.
Hunting.
Transport.
Company.
Combat and war.
Wool and fur.

To simulate the evolution and domestication possessing these criteria of specializations was the ideal. Remembering that the Wolf is the origin of dogs, being the “indigo dog”, considered the oldest breed.
The benchmark of interest is on topics highlighted below and found within the reference.

Primitive Types

Primitive Types – Hunting Dogs

Other Primitive And Ancient Dogs

Goats


Reference:
http://www.nhsn.ncl.ac.uk/interests/mammals/mammals-north-east/feral-goat/

http://www2.cnrs.fr/en/725.htm?debut=176

Bee
Pesquisas recentes sugerem que não havia abelha acima do 57º Lado Norte (Danemark e Inglaterra agora) na Europa na época do Neolítico (entre 9000 e 3000 aC). [1]

[1] https://oc.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apicultura

The harvest and consolation of honey, to discern the removal of beekeeping, have been seen since prehistory. Rock paintings representing the honeycomb dinners show the use of scale and steaming. [2]

[2] https://oc.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apicultura
[2] Michel Pastoureau, « L’homme et l’abeille », Concordance des temps, Modèl:Date-.

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At this moment, the man plucked the honey often destroying the colony, as shown by the first iconographic representation of a bee hunt described in 1924 by archaeologist Eduardo Hernández-Pacheco and Estevan .: a mesolithic cave painting (dated from four to seven thousand years behind) found in the “spider’s cave” near Bicorp (Valencia). You see two “honeycombs,” the first on the floor, the second climbing up a sort of lianas or corners of scale, carrying a banana to fill the crop, in the hand to enter the shrimp of a Tree or a crutch looking for the sunglasses . Around the heavily they are designed with bees flying around [3].

[3] Eduardo Hernández-Pacheco y Estevan, Las pinturas prehistóricas de las cuevas de La Araña (Valencia): Evolución del arte rupestre en España, Musée national des sciences naturelles d’Espagne, 1924, 221 p…

The first [born] (https://oc.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bornat) was perhaps the result of the taking of a chestnut tree soup containing a child of bees. This souk, returned from the forest, allowed to have a childhood near demorance. Later, with the mastery of embroidery techniques, the first artificial borns, manufactured as banatas from vegetable materials appeared [[4]] (https://oc.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apicultura#cite_note- Darchen-4), but one does not know exactly when the domestication of the bee was realized.

This would have accompanied the sedentarization of man at the beginning of the Neolithic period, about 9,000 BC. Archeochemical tests of prehistoric honey use and the use of beeswax have recently been surveyed on the tops of 6400 clayey found in the Middle East, Europe and North Africa [5]. The largest stems of beeswax were found on land dating to 7000 BC, located in Anatolia, as in the site of Çayönü Tepesi and Çatalhöyük, near Konya. Perhaps he had used it to make stoppers sealed his lips, or - which is perhaps the case Çayönü Tepesi, which are mixed for the traction of animal fat - could be the remains of Nis enterguda honey bees to produce sugar the food

In Anatolia, the remains of the earliest beeswax can be found in the Balkans, for example, in trodden SULS Paliambela terraces of the sites (present-day Greece, around 4900 to 4500 ABC.) Today’s Magura (5,500- 5 200 Abc.) And Drenovac Turska Česma (present-day Serbia), almost 1500 years before it was thought. They clash in Poland or even in France, within the chasseans sites of the fourth millennium of ABC (Font Juvenal, Chassey-le-Camp and Bercy) and Clairvaux-les-Lacs.

Bee wax remains were trounced in terns in the Danemarc, and also in England (but not Scotland or in Ireland or Scandinavia) at a time when this region perhaps constituted the northern boundary of the bee area spreading.

Egipty and Mesopotamian;

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Name of Nesout-bity (“name of the word”), literally “this leaving the cane and the bee”, within the culture of the ancient Egyptian empire.

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Apicultura é no Império Naut egípcio do século XXIV AbC. Trobadas desempenhos foram na “Casa das estações” do Templo Solar do rei Nioserra à Abo Ghorab ( antigo Egito ), onde é visto enfumatge cenas que mostram a extração de mel e a conservação [6] . É o mais antigo registro de abelhas domésticas e abelhas [7] . Dobradiças agora completamente cristalizadas foram encontradas dentro de sepulturas.

O uso de remédios e de oferendas religiosas, de cera e mel importado (sem poder determinar se são abelhas melíferas ou laticínios), é tenso na Mesopotâmia no segundo milênio aC. O chefe executivo da Mari Shamas-res-uşur fez uma pausa como promotor do abate de abelhas [8] . Coma os egípcios ou os mesopotâmios, os ititas praticam a apicultura: as leis itites Atusa punir verso 1300 AbC. os ravolators de nascimentos [9] , [10] .

Em setembro de 2007, arqueólogos descobriram em Tel Rehov 30 datas de nascimento intactas datadas do tempo bíblico na ISRAEL , entre meados do século X dC até o início do dia 9. A produção na época é estimada anualmente em 500 quilos de mel e 70 quilos de cera [11] .

Beekeeping had its origins in honey hunting—the opportunistic stealing of honey from wild honey bee nests. True beekeeping began when humans started providing artificial cavities within which the bees could build comb for the queen to lay her eggs and the workers could process honey. By 2450 BCE, the Egyptians had developed sophisticated apiculture, and, within two millennia, beekeeping with horizontal hives had spread throughout the Mediterranean. During Europe’s Middle Ages, honey and wax became important commodities for trade, and beekeeping in skep, log, box, and tree hives flourished to meet the demand. Other species of honey bees contributed to the development and spread of beekeeping in Asia beginning around 300 BCE. Meanwhile, beekeeping evolved independently in Mesoamerica with the stingless bee Melipona beecheii , as documented by archaeological finds and written accounts that survived Spanish conquest.
References: https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev-ento-031616-035115#_i3

[4] Simple hives and smoke were used and honey was stored in jars, some of which were found in the tombs of pharaohs such as Tutankhamun. It wasn’t until the 18th century that European understanding of the colonies and biology of bees allowed the construction of the moveable comb hive so that honey could be harvested without destroying the entire colony.

At some point humans began to attempt to domesticate wild bees in artificial hives made from hollow logs, wooden boxes, pottery vessels, and woven straw baskets or “skeps”. Traces of beeswax are found in pot sherds throughout the Middle East beginning about 7000 BCE.[3]

Honeybees were kept in Egypt from antiquity.[5] On the walls of the sun temple of Nyuserre Ini from the Fifth Dynasty, before 2422 BCE, workers are depicted blowing smoke into hives as they are removing honeycombs.[6] Inscriptions detailing the production of honey are found on the tomb of Pabasa from the Twenty-sixth Dynasty (c. 650 BCE), depicting pouring honey in jars and cylindrical hives.[7] Sealed pots of honey were found in the grave goods of pharaohs such as Tutankhamun.

I am Shamash-resh-ușur, the governor of Suhu and the land of Mari. Bees that collect honey, which none of my ancestors had ever seen or brought into the land of Suhu, I brought down from the mountain of the men of Habha, and made them settle in the orchards of the town ‘Gabbari-built-it’. They collect honey and wax, and I know how to melt the honey and wax – and the gardeners know too. Whoever comes in the future, may he ask the old men of the town, (who will say) thus: “They are the buildings of Shamash-resh-ușur, the governor of Suhu, who introduced honey bees into the land of Suhu.”

— translated text from stele, (Dalley, 2002)[8]

In prehistoric Greece (Crete and Mycenae), there existed a system of high-status apiculture, as can be concluded from the finds of hives, smoking pots, honey extractors and other beekeeping paraphernalia in Knossos. Beekeeping was considered a highly valued industry controlled by beekeeping overseers—owners of gold rings depicting apiculture scenes rather than religious ones as they have been reinterpreted recently, contra Sir Arthur Evans.[9]

In prehistoric Greece (Crete and Mycenae), there existed a system of high-status apiculture, as can be concluded from the finds of hives, smoking pots, honey extractors and other beekeeping paraphernalia in Knossos. Beekeeping was considered a highly valued industry controlled by beekeeping overseers—owners of gold rings depicting apiculture scenes rather than religious ones as they have been reinterpreted recently, contra Sir Arthur Evans.[9]


Beekeepers may have extracted up to one half ton of honey per year from the hives discovered. (Drawing Credit: Amihai Mazar of Hebrew University).
Source: https://patternsofevidence.com/blog/2017/10/12/oldest-bee-hives-discovered-in-israel/

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Worker points to row of beehives discovered during an archeological dig in northern Israel and believed to be the oldest in existence. (Credit: Amihai Mazar of Hebrew University).
Source: https://patternsofevidence.com/blog/2017/10/12/oldest-bee-hives-discovered-in-israel/

Archaeological finds relating to beekeeping have been discovered at Rehov, a Bronze and Iron Age archaeological site in the Jordan Valley, Israel.[10] Thirty intact hives, made of straw and unbaked clay, were discovered by archaeologist Amihai Mazar in the ruins of the city, dating from about 900 BCE. The hives were found in orderly rows, three high, in a manner that could have accommodated around 100 hives, held more than 1 million bees and had a potential annual yield of 500 kilograms of honey and 70 kilograms of beeswax, according to Mazar, and are evidence that an advanced honey industry existed in ancient Israel 3,000 years ago.[11][12][13]


Each hive had a removable plug at one end, for honeycomb extraction, and a small hole on the other end for bees to enter and exit the hive. (credit: Amihai Mazar of Hebrew University).

In ancient Greece, aspects of the lives of bees and beekeeping are discussed at length by Aristotle. Beekeeping was also documented by the Roman writers Virgil, Gaius Julius Hyginus, Varro, and Columella.

Beekeeping has also been practiced in ancient China since antiquity. In the book “Golden Rules of Business Success” written by Fan Li (or Tao Zhu Gong) during the Spring and Autumn period there are sections describing the art of beekeeping, stressing the importance of the quality of the wooden box used and how this can affect the quality of the honey. The Chinese word for honey ( , reconstructed Old Chinese pronunciation *mjit) was borrowed from Indo-European proto-Tocharian language, the source of “honey”, from proto-Tocharian * ḿət(ə) (where * ḿ is palatalized; cf. Tocharian B mit ), cognate with English mead .

The ancient Maya domesticated a separate species of stingless bee. The use of stingless bees is referred to as meliponiculture, named after bees of the tribe Meliponini—such as Melipona quadrifasciata in Brazil. This variation of bee keeping still occurs around the world today.[14] For instance, in Australia, the stingless bee Tetragonula carbonaria is kept for production of their honey.[15]

The collection of honey from the colonies of wild bees is usually done by subjugating the bees with smoke and breaking the tree or rocks where the colony is located, often resulting in the physical destruction of the nest.

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Collects honey from tube hive
Source: https://pcela.rs/Egyptian_Beekeeping_2.htm

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Collects honey from tube hive
Source: https://pcela.rs/Egyptian_Beekeeping_2.htm

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Arqueology - bee Israel

image
Source: https://br.pinterest.com/pin/20336635788758327/?lp=true
Terracotta - Grecce.

Muito provavelmente as partes foram segmentadas para a extração dos favos de mel.

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Article Source: http://docplayer.net/74403383-Beekeeping-in-prehistoric-greece.html

Beehive Anglo-Saxon


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https://www.etsy.com/listing/279233128/beehive-anglo-saxon-primitive-style-clay
Source: https://www.etsy.com/listing/279233128/beehive-anglo-saxon-primitive-style-clay
Beehive ancient " french"

This model seems to me quite possible for the Neolithic.
The wooden structure with wooden pins and the upper segment in a basket of vegetable fibers with cables to facilitate handling. It is definitely a possibility for the final Neolithic period.
Source: https://br.pinterest.com/pin/332984966169786159/

APIARY

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Construction of 1850. Hive of vegetable fiber hives.
My opinion. Something very similar may have existed or with more primitive forms. But the concept is good for little family honey in Neolitic.
Source: https://br.pinterest.com/pin/14003448810839956/


Source: https://br.pinterest.com/pin/397090892117490360/

image
The boxes of bees are modern. But the shelter of stones looks very similar to the ancient apiaries made in the rock. Maybe a good idea to protect a stone fence to protect the hives. Whether they are hives dug into rocks or tubular made of clay. A layer or structure of stones in this case to shelter from the deterioration of time seems to me quite possible. Certainly in the game, there is no way to rebuild everything 100%. Information is scarce for apiaries and bees in the period. Creativity also has to happen.
Source: https://br.pinterest.com/pin/299348706466856580/

Xemxija - China


Source: https://thequeensbeesproject.wordpress.com/2012/03/27/ancient-honey-bee/

Bohol - Philipines
image
Source: https://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/mystery-empty-honeycomb-tombs-bohol-00997

Apiary Ancient Egpty
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image
Source: https://loe.org/shows/segments.html?programID=15-P13-00046&segmentID=7
Are video Archeologist talk tchequines Apiculture ancient Egpty.

Apiary - Ancient Florest Europe


Source:https://br.pinterest.com/pin/607282330980567484/

Contêiner Transport honey our bee


Source: https://www.worldofbacara.com/listing/547401144/honey-container-african-kamba-cowhide


Source; https://www.etsy.com/sg-en/listing/540129637/african-turkana-honey-pot-container-wood

Ancient Commerce Horney and others


Source: https://br.pinterest.com/pin/473581717063593666/

Ancient Beekping
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Ancient beekeeping methods included keeping your bees in a skep .

Ancient Beekping
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Source:

Beekeeping Cameroonian
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A beekeeper from Cameroon, in traditional costumes to extract honey. It is a good alternative of "equipment for the period, as leather clothes are another alternative that we can never rule out. Who is brave to a reconstructive archeology before the bees?
Source: https://br.pinterest.com/pin/205828645441291396/

Himalaian Beekping
Some thousands of years men in NEPAL, Himalayan risk in the “kingdom of bees”. Cliffs that “drip honey” are thousands of bees and honeycombs.
The combs are attacked until they fall to the bottom of the valley. and then collected. Recently new techniques with cables, pulleys and baskets seek to minimize the loss of honey with the impact on the soil.
Reconstructive archeology is good … but … has bees …


Source: https://www.elitereaders.com/honey-hunting-in-nepal/

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Source: https://br.pinterest.com/pin/542261611365565555/

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Source:https://br.pinterest.com/pin/535998793137268847/?lp=true


Source: https://br.pinterest.com/pin/24277285463094364/

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Source: https://www.reddit.com/r/Beekeeping/comments/2hv6pi/repost_but_i_think_this_belongs_here_a_nepalese/

References others:


Pictures Bee

Games:
Bees are fascinating and their lives so short. Finally a simulator game for anyone who wants to know how the life of this fantastic and useful insect is. We finished the post with screenshots of the game that aims at the children’s public, school and admirers of the bees.

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Game: Bee Simulator (2019)

1 Like

We need predators in the wild too like wolves and bears. Would be cool to actually see the ecosystem in work when these animals hunt each other.

1 Like

OK. BEARS

SOURCE:

There were briefly 3 species of bears, from paleolithic to present brown, black and red and polar bears of half of the Neolithic. You descentestes these bear arctus.
Article
Cave bears still “alive”


Sorce: https://www.reddit.com/r/pics/comments/2lawtf/prehistoric_extinct_bears_arctotherium/

1 - AGRIOTEHRIUM
Diet: Its primary diet was carnivorous and secondary was omnivorous possibly classifying this animal as mesocarnivore. Size: 2.5 m in length, 165 cm in height, 600 kg of weight ** Temporal Range:** the Miocene - Pleistocene (North America, Europe, Africa, and Asia). Period: ~13.6 Ma B.C –2.5 Ma B.C , Massive existing for approximately 11.1 million years B.C.

2 - ARCTOTHERIUM ANGUSTIDDENS


A skeleton of Arctotherium angustidens from Buenos Aires indicates big males of this species would have weighed 1.6 tonnes, standing 3.4 meters tall, making it the largest bear known. Dimensions : length - 3 m, height - 180 сm, weight - 600-1750 kg
Temporal range : Pleistocene - Holocene of North America Period: 1.9 Ma B.C ~1.1 Ma B.C – 10.000 B.C.
Source:
https://prehistoric-fauna.com/Arctotherium-angustidens
3 - ARCTODUS SIMUS (white background)

Dimensions : length - 2,9 m, height - 180 сm, weight - 400-950 kg
Temporal range : Pleistocene of North America
Period: 800 .000 BC – 11.000 years B.C
Source: https://prehistoric-fauna.com/Arctodus


RED BEAR

Localization; Chaveaux - FRA. Culture Aurigninacian


Source; http://www.bradshawfoundation.com/chauvet/red_bears.php

In construction

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Source: https://giphy.com/gifs/landscape-qcISa1HLER9HW

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Dimensões: 2,4 m de comprimento, 180 cm de altura, peso: 600 - 800 kg
Período de tempo: Pleistoceno Superior (extinto do Holoceno, há cerca de 300 anos).


Steppe bison ( Bison priscus)
**Order: Artiodactyla Family : Bovidae
**Dimensions : length 3 m, height 2 m, weight 600 -1200 kg
**Temporal range: during the Pleistocene epoch (Eurasia and North America)

Auroch (Bos primigenius)
**Order: Artiodactyla
**Family: Bovidae
**Time period: the Late Pleistocene (extinct the Holocene, some 300 years ago).
**Size: 2,4 m in length, 180 cm in height, 600 -1000 kg of weight
Source:
https://prehistoric-fauna.com/Steppe-bison
https://prehistoric-fauna.com/Steppe-bison-and-Auroch


**Bison antiquus (Bison antiquus)
**Order : Artiodactyla
**Family: Bovidae
**Dimensions: length 4.6 m, height 2.27 m, weight -1,588 kg
**Temporal range: During the later Pleistocene epoch, between 200,000 and 10,000 years ago (North America)
Source: https://prehistoric-fauna.com/Bison-antiquus-white

birds and or their eggs ?

1 Like


Ornimegalonyx oteroi
**Class: Aves
*Order: Strigiformes
*Family: Strigidae
**Temporal range: the Late Pleistocene period on the island of Cuba(10,000s of years ago)
**Dimensions : height - 120 сm, weight - 9 - 30 kg
Source:
https://prehistoric-fauna.com/Giant-cursorial-owl


**Águia coroada malgaxe (Stephanoaetus mahery)
**Classe: Aves
**Ordem:Accipitriformes
**Família: Accipitridae
**Género: *Stephanoaetus
**Período de tempo: que habitou Madagascar até 1500 dC
**Tamanho: 110 cm de altura, 3,5 - 7 kg de peso , a envergadura varia tipicamente - 1,5 - 2m
Source:
https://prehistoric-fauna.com/Stephanoaetus-mahery

image
Source: https://br.pinterest.com/pin/776730266953384716/?lp=true


Source: https://prehistoric-fauna.com/Stephanoaetus-mahery


North Island giant moa (D. novaezealandiae)
**Class: Aves
**Superorder: Paleognathae
**Order: Dinornithiformes
**Family: Dinornithidae
**Time period: They became extinct, probably in the 12th or 13th century (the North Island of New Zealand)
**Size: more than 3 in height, 300 - 400 kg of weight
Source:
https://prehistoric-fauna.com/North-Island-giant-moa


http://nzbirdsonline.org.nz/species/south-island-giant-moa

South Island giant moa (Dinornis robustus)
**Class: Aves
**Superorder: Paleognathae
**Order: Dinornithiformes
**Family: Dinornithidae
**Time period: They became extinct, probably in the 12th or 17th century (the South Island of New Zealand)
**Size: more than 3,5 in height, 300 - 400 kg of weight


https://in80plays.wordpress.com/tag/conservation/


image

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http://www.prehistoric-wildlife.com/species/d/dinornis.html


Aepyornis maximus
**Elephant bird (Aepyornis maximus)
**Class: Aves
**Clade: Novaeratitae
**Order:A. Epyornithiformes
**Family: Aepyornithidae
**Time period: They became extinct, probably in the 17th or 18th century (Madagascar)

Size: more than 2 in height, 300 - 500 kg of weight

Typical representative : Aepyornis maximus Hilaire, 185 1
Source:
https://prehistoric-fauna.com/Aepyornis-maximus

Genyornis
**Class: Aves
**Order: Anseriformes
**Family: Dromornithidae
**Size: 230 cm in height, 200-240 kg of weight.
**Time period: lived in Australia during the Pleistocene (extinct 50±5 thousand years ago)


Source:
** https://www.smh.com.au/environment/conservation/genyornis-swan-song-humans-implicated-in-demise-of-huge-australian-bird-20160202-gmj4r2.html

** https://prehistoric-fauna.com/Genyornis

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http://editimage.club/rapic.html


Dodo (Raphus cucullatus)
**Order: Columbiformes
**Family: Columbidae
**Dimensions: lwas about 1 m tall and may have weighed 10–18 kg in the wild.
**Temporal range: endemic to the island of Mauritius, east of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean. Extinction date of 1693
Source:
https://prehistoric-fauna.com/Raphus-cucullatus

image
http://www.avph.com.br/dodo.htm


image
http://www.badassoftheweek.com/haasteagle.html

Haast’s eagle
**Class: Aves
**Order: Accipitriformes
**Family: Accipitridae
**Time period: They became extinct, probably in the 13th century (South Island of New Zealand)
**Size: Most estimates place the female Haast eagles in the range of 10–16 kg and males around 9–12 kg.
Source:
https://prehistoric-fauna.com/Harpagornis-moorei

that is one great reply, this will keep me busy fro awhile

There are several species. JUST DO THE TIME CUTOUT AND INSERT